Causes of early-onset gastric cancer occurring around 40s identified! Increased research on diagnosis and therapy of early-onset gastric cancer anticipated. ▲ Professor Sang-Won Lee (left) and Ph.D. student Dong-Gi Mun (right) Professor Sang-Won Lee’s research team of the Center for Proteogenome Research at Korea University has identified the causes of early-onset gastric cancer through a proteogenomic study conducted with early-onset gastric cancer patients. * Early-onset gastric cancer: Gastric cancer occurring in patients in their 40s or younger. * Proteogenomics: Comprehensive analytical research on the extensive genome and proteome using patients’ disease tissue samples. Professor Sang-Won Lee’s research team of the Center for Proteogenome Research at Korea University, supported by the Korea Post-Genome Project of the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT), published the research result in Cancer Cell (IF=22.84), the top academic journal in the field of cancer research, in the online edition of January 14 (morning, January 15, KST). * Title of Article: Proteogenomic Characterization of Human Early-Onset Gastric Cancer * Author Information: Daehee Hwang (Professor in the Department of New Biology, DGIST), Sang-Won Lee (Professor in the Department of Chemistry, Korea University), Sanghyuk Lee (Department of Life Science, Ewha Womans University), Eunok Paek (Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University), Hark Kyun Kim (National Cancer Center), Eun Gyeong Yang (Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology) (The aforementioned are corresponding authors with equal contribution.), Dong-Gi Mun (Ph.D. student in the Department of Chemistry, Korea University), Jinhyuk Bhin (Ph.D. in the Department of New Biology, DGIST), Sangok Kim (Ph.D. student in the Department of Life Science, Ewha Womans University), Hyunwoo Kim (Ph.D. in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Hanyang University), Jae Hun Jung (Ph.D. student in the Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyung Hee University), and others. Gastric cancer, a common cancer worldwide, is a fatal disease responsible for over 700,000 deaths a year and its mortality rate is the third highest for cancers after lung cancer and liver cancer. Gastric cancer rarely occurs before the 30s, and its onset is usually between the 40s and 70s as its incidence rate increases with the age. Early-onset gastric cancer refers to gastric cancer of which the onset is around the 40s. In Korea, the proportion of early-onset gastric cancer patients is about 15% of all gastric cancer patients, a figure higher than that of other countries. Early-onset gastric cancer is caused more by genetic factors than environmental factors. The risk of onset is higher in those who have a family history, and higher in women than in men. Early-onset gastric cancer occurring in young populations is often of the diffuse type, which is difficult to treat since it is diagnosed late, progresses rapidly, and is highly metastatic. The causes of early-onset gastric cancer had not been previously identified. * The diffuse type refers to a type of gastric cancer where the cancer tissues are diffused under the gastric mucosa, rather than existing as a cancerous mass. Therefore, this diffuse type gives no signs, is thus difficult to diagnose by endoscopy, and has a high mortality rate. Through joint research with many Korean basic science researchers and gastric cancer clinical researchers, the research group performed a proteomic analysis of the cancer tissues and surrounding normal tissues obtained from 80 early-onset gastric cancer patients over 5 years using a method known as next generation sequencing (NGS). As a result, the research group was able to identify the mutated genes correlated with the onset of early-onset gastric cancer (CDH1, ARID1A, RHOA) from about 7,000 somatic mutated genes, and showed that these genes are involved in the signaling pathways significantly related to the onset of early-onset gastric cancer. In addition, the genetic analysis of the tissues from the 80 gastric cancer patients showed that the gastric cancer is divided into four subtypes, each exhibiting different therapeutic responses. The research group found that the four gastric cancer subtypes each have different cell signaling pathways, and this discovery enables more precisely targeted searches for the causes of gastric cancer. Professor Sang-Won Lee, who participated in the research, explained its significance: “With the incidence rate of early-onset gastric cancer increasing in Korea, especially in the female population, this study identified the precise genetic causes of early-onset gastric cancer and is expected to trigger active research into the development of precise diagnoses and improved gastric cancer therapy.” [Terminology] 1. Cancer Cell ㅇ An internationally authoritative academic journal in the field of cancer research ※ Impact factor: 22.84 2. Proteogenomics ㅇ A convergence technology integrating genome-proteome information technology. Proteogenomics is a multi-omics technology for discovering and identifying biomolecular signatures significant to diseases by systematically integrating genomic and proteomic information. 3. Early-onset gastric cancer ㅇ Gastric cancer occurring in young populations in their 40s or younger. Early-onset gastric cancer accounts for 15% of the gastric cancers in Korea. The incidence rate is particularly high in young women. The incidence rate of early-onset gastric cancer is also increasing in the US. Early-onset gastric cancer is life threatening because it is typically of the diffuse type with extensively diffused small-sized cancer masses and thus difficult to discover and highly metastatic. 4. Cancer subtypes ㅇCancers are divided into subtypes according to the characteristics of their cancer cells, namely their microscopic morphology, the specific substances contained within them, or the specific changes found in their DNA. Given the additional results available from proteogenomics, cancers can now be divided into more precise subtypes by integrating the changes found in specific genomes and specific proteomes. 5. RNA and mRNA ㅇ RNA: Genetic molecules existing in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm and involved in protein synthesis. ㅇ mRNA: A specific type of RNA that transfers the genetic information from DNA to ribosomes where proteins are synthesized. 6. Proteome: The entire set of proteins existing in cells. 7. Multi-omics ㅇ Studies of the genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, epigenome, and lipidome in our cells are respectively called “-omics,“ and the studies combining at least two “-omics“ are called “multi-omics.“ 8. Biomolecular signature ㅇ The collection of gene and protein attributes, such as DNA/RNA mutations, protein sequence mutations, protein expression and the modifications, that allow molecular measurement of disease states. 9. Diffuse type and intestinal type ㅇ About half of the gastric cancers found in Korean patients are classified microscopically as the diffuse type in which the cancer cells, rather than being clustered together, are extensively diffused. By contrast, the cancer cells of the intestinal type are clustered together and the cancer tissues can be identified microscopically. [Figure Description] ■Gene mutations related to the disease were identified in the genome of the early-onset gastric cancer patients. Figure 1. Proteogenomic analysis of nonsynonymous somatic mutation A) Significant mutated genes found in the early-onset gastric cancer patients (CDH1, TP53, BANP, MUC5B, RHOA, ARID1A). B) CDH1, ARID1A, and RHOA showing a high correlation with phosphorylation. ■The correlation of the proteogenome related to early-onset gastric cancer with cancer onset was analyzed. Figure 2. Quantitative analysis of mRNA-proteome correlation A) The analysis of the correlation between mRNA and proteome showed a 34.3% correlation. B) The analysis of the functions of the genes having a low correlation and a high correlation showed that the genes are involved in different signaling pathways. ■The analysis of the proteogenome of the 80 early-onset gastric cancer patients showed that the gastric cancer is divided into four subtypes. Figure 3. Subtypes of early-onset gastric cancer identified by proteogenomic analysis ■The genomic analysis of the four subtypes of early-onset gastric cancer identified distinct signaling pathways. Figure 4. Major signaling pathways of the four identified subtypes A) Analysis of the representative signaling pathways of the four subtypes. The signaling pathways provide information essential to the definition of the molecular levels of early-onset gastric cancer. B) The representative immune response signaling pathway of subtype 2. C) The representative cell migration signaling pathway of subtype 4.
2019 Korea University Summer Campus (KU ISC) KU ISC offers one semester's load of work condensed into 4 and 6 weeks, during which students can take credit-bearing courses and engage with world-class academics. As part of our summer program, we provide field trips for our participants to explore this amazing country and culture. • Program Period 6-week: June 25, 2019 – August 1, 2019 4-week: June 25, 2019 – July 18, 2019 • Application Period: January 2, 2019 - May 15, 2019 Please see the attachment for the further informations.
KU–KBSI-UNIST research team develops high-performance electrode catalysts for water-splitting Results published in leading journal Advanced Materials ▲ Dr. Aram Oh, Ho Young Kim, Dr. Hionsuck Baik, Prof. Sang Hoon Joo, Prof. Kwangyeol Lee (from left) Water electrolysis technology, which breaks down water to obtain hydrogen, is recognized as a clean technology that does not produce carbon dioxide or other pollutants. In particular, water electrolysis in acidic media has come under the spotlight for its high activity. However, the high cost and low durability of the iridium or ruthenium catalysts are obstacles to commercialization, but have been overcome thanks to a new electrode catalyst developed by a local research team. The team, comprised of members of Korea University (Prof. Kwangyeol Lee, Department of Chemistry), the Korea Basic Science Institute (Aram Oh and Hionsuck Baik), and the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (Prof. Sang Hoon Joo and Ho Young Kim), fabricated a Pt/Ni/Ru nanocrystal, and utilized it as an electrode catalyst for water electrolysis in acidic media. With this proposed nanocrystal electrode catalyst, they succeeded in achieving the world best standard of activity and durability for water-splitting electrode catalysts. The team fabricated a core double-shell icosahedral Pt/Ni/Ru nanocrystal by applying phase dissociation to a nanoparticle alloy comprised of multiple elements, and examined the structure and composition of the nanoparticles through double modified aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. After acid and heat treatment, they produced a new type of nanocrystal, consisting of a Ni/Ru-doped Pt core and a Pt/Ni-doped RuO2 frame shell. The proposed nanocatalyst featured catalytic activity 15 times higher than current commercial iridium catalysts. While commercial iridium catalysts only managed to retain 40% of their initial performance after 10 hours of operation, the proposed catalyst retained 90%, demonstrating its durability. The core and frame shell structure of the proposed catalysts minimizes the use of expensive metal, and has optimal area for high catalytic activity. Through the synergistic Pt/Ni/Ru relationship, the team achieved the world’s highest activity and durability for water electrolysis reactions. They were also able to examine the mechanism behind the formation of frame-type nanoparticles using the high spatial resolution (60 pm) transmission electron microscope owned by the Seoul center of KBSI. Professor Kwangyeol Lee said, “To commercialize this technology, we are conducting follow-up studies on the mass production of catalysts, and the extension of stable operation time. The catalytic activity and improved durability of unstable metal oxides doped with other elements can be applied to various catalytic systems related to energy and the environment, and thereby play a part in overcoming environmental issues.” Professor Sang Hoon Joo of UNIST said, “Further research will be conducted to study the principles behind the improved catalytic activity and durability of the new catalyst.” Supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea and KBSI, the study was published in the online version of Advanced Materials, a leading journal in nanoscience, chemistry and materials science, on October 26 under the title of “Topotactic Transformations in an Icosahedral Nanocrystal to Form Efficient Water‐Splitting Catalysts.” [Fig. 1] TEM image of the high-performance Pt/Ni/Ru nanocatalyst, and a schematic evaluating the performance of the electrode catalyst for water electrolysis [Fig. 2] Schematic of water electrolysis
International Academic Conference in Celebration of 30th Anniversary of Constitutional Court The Korea University School of Law held 2018 Korea-Germany International Conference In celebrating the 30th Anniversary of the establishment of the Korean Constitutional Court, the Korea University School of Law held the 2018 Korea-Germany International Conference on campus on Tuesday and Wednesday, November 6-7, in association with the Konrad Adenauer Foundation and the Constitutional Academic and Professional Association. At the Conference, participants discussed how faithfully the Constitutional Court is playing its role as a protector of the Constitution at the interstices of law and politics, and how the administration of justice should be reformed to ensure the independence of the judiciary. On November 6, the first discussion – titled “Judicial Assessments of Constitutionality and Democracy: Is the Constitutional Court a protector of the Constitution or a political player?”, and presided over by Professor Seung-ju Bang from Hanyang University Law School – started at 2p.m, with the opening speeches by Dean of the Korea University School of Law Soon-gu Myung and Director of the Korean office of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation Stefan Samse. Former Deputy Chief Justice of the German Federal Administrative Supreme Court and Former Deputy Chief Justice of the Berlin State Constitutional Court Michael Hund, currently an attorney at law, delivered the first presentation, titled “Judicial Assessments of Constitutionality and of Administrative Law in a Democracy: How Political is German Jurisprudence?” Comparing aspects of the Korean and German Constitutional Courts, Hund provided 12 theses which addressed two questions, namely the status under the German Constitution of trials held in the Constitutional and Administrative courts, and the extent to which these courts are political. The next speaker was Professor Seon-Taek Kim from the KU School of Law. In his presentation on “The Constitution and Judicial Assessments of Constitutionality: on the Border of Law and Politics,” he began by emphasizing the duality of the Constitution and the Constitutional Court due to the opposing pulls of the ideals of justice and of political philosophy and practicality. Touching upon historical cases of the tension between law and politics in the Korean judiciary's assessments of the constitutionality of certain actions or laws, he talked about the distinctive status, mission and structure of the Constitutional Court, and the limits on the adherence to the Constitution on the part of the judiciary itself. A follow-up discussion began at 4 p.m. after a short break. Professor Tae-ho Chung from Kyung Hee University Law School, Professor Sang Hie Han from Konkuk University Law School, Constitution Researcher at the Constitutional Court Ji-Hyun Kim, Professor Jung-in Yoon from the Korea University Legal Research Institute, Public Relations Officer at the Berlin Criminal Court Justice Lisa Jani, and Constitution Researcher at the German Federal Constitutional Court Dr. Philipp Wittmann shared their thoughts on the presentation. Justice Jani and Dr. Wittmann also elaborated on the ways in which the German Federal Constitutional Court has protected the nation’s democracy and the Constitution through its proceedings. Finally, there was an hour-long open Q&A session and wrap-up discussion from 5 to 6 p.m. before the Day 1 proceedings were concluded. On November 7, six Korean participants (including Professor Seung-ju Bang) and two German counterparts engaged in a round-table discussion on “The Independence of Judges and the Judicial Administration.” The Korean speakers addressed the current issue of the Supreme Court corruption scandal, in which a former justice is suspected of having been bribed to intentionally delay a trial and to press other judges to do the same, the potential, or – as many believe – likely, result of which might have generated unfavorable public opinion about the then government. The speakers also discussed the possible actions that should be taken to address valid concerns about the scandal. Dr. Wittman talked about the Distortion of Law Act, which stipulates that judges who commit crimes while in office and thereby fail to uphold justice be punished, as well as how the above-mentioned Korean judicial scandal is viewed in Germany. All participants at the conference shared fruitful ideas about how judges in Korea can secure their independence from external pressures, with reference to the case of Germany. “Korea is going through a challenging time due to its failures to meet the standards of a democracy operating under the rule of law,” Lawyer Jae-Young Kim said. “The kinds of thoroughgoing judicial reform discussed at this conference will hopefully help the nation overcome these problems.”
▣ Eligibility: Freshmen who entered from 2017 Fall semester to 2018 Fall semester (KGSP scholars and dual degree students are not eligible.) ▣ Application 1) Period: Nov. 7(Wed) ~ Nov. 16(Fri), 2018 2) Way to Register: Visit http://portal.korea.ac.kr-->Login-->Registraiton/Scholarship -->Scholarship-->Register the Scholarship 3) Documents Submission (①~③ Merge to One file and Upload) ① Application Form * Signatures of an applicant and the advisor professor are mandatory. ② Statement of ability for an applicant (included in the application form) ③ Language proficiency test result (original) ⇨ An applicant who already submitted language test results valid from the application deadline can apply with it. (Please contact to the admission office of graduate school to be confirmed.) ▣ Result Announcement: In January, 2019 ▣ Requirements Scholarship Benefits Requirements Language Proficiency (at least one) GPA* (2018 Fall) Global Leader Scholarship 100% of Tuition Fee + Dormitory Fee (during the semester) TOEFL (PBT) 577 or (CBT) 233 or (iBT) 90 or higher TEPS 700 or higher (New TEPS 385) IELTS 7.0 or higher TOPIK level 6 or above 4.0 / 4.5 or higher Humanities and Social Sciences Scholarship 60% of Tuition Fee TOEFL (PBT) 553 or (CBT) 220 or (iBT) 82 or higher TEPS 620 or higher (New TEPS 337) IELTS 6.0 or higher TOPIK level 4 or above 3.5 / 4.5 or higher Natural Sciences and Engineering Scholarship 65% of Tuition Fee * If your current semester’s GPA is below the requirements, the application for the scholarship will be cancelled. (GPA will be announced on January, 2019.) ▣ Note 1) Students who entered before 2017 Fall semester are not applicable for this scholarship. 2) Current (Fall 2018) scholarship students must apply for the scholarship for the next semester. 3) Applicants who apply for Global Leader Scholarship could be changed to Humanities and Social Science / Natural Sciences and Engineering Scholarship by the evaluation.